I use 6to4 – why are my applications still preferring IPv4?
I found out about this curious behavior almost a month ago during the World IPv6 Day. I was surprised about this, even though I really shouldn’t be, given that I was fixing some bugs in the glibc implementation of this mechanism only few months earlier. ;-)
If you are not bothering with tunnel brokers anymore and are using 6to4 for your IPv6 connectivity like me, you might have noticed that your applications still prefer IPv4, disappontingly. You can use
getent ahosts www.brmlab.cz (or a different host) to see the list of addresses in the order your applications will most likely try to connect by default.
The key mechanism in play here is the RFC3484 getaddrinfo(3) address selection mechanism; on GNU/Linux system, it is described (and configurable) in
/etc/gai.conf. The aim of the mechanism is to choose the most suitable pair of source and destination addresses; this is the place where we can choose whether to prefer IPv4 or IPv6, that if we can talk to localhost, we should do it that way, or to talk to link-local addresses using link-local addresses too.
When choosing a destination address, each is marked by a label and preference. First, if there is a destination address with the same label as its “best” source address, such addresses are preferred. From these candidates, the address with the highest preference is picked.
You can read up on the full details in the RFC. In a sense, the label differentiates between multiple transports; IPv4, normal IPv6 (2001::/16, or rather ::/0 minus a lot of exceptions), 6to4, link-local and localhost are all such separate transports. This mechanism for example makes sure that IPv4 is preferred to normal IPv6 in case we have IPv4 address, but only link-local IPv6 available. And the important point is that 6to4 is differentiated. If a system has both normal IPv6 and 6to4 configured, normal IPv6 is used for normal IPv6 destinations while 6to4 is used for 6to4 destinations. The side effect is that if IPv4 and 6to4 addresses are available, IPv4 will be preferred to IPv6 destinations.
I’m not sure about the exact motivation for this, but it does make sense. It reduces the load on the relay servers that route between 6to4 realm and native IPv6 internet; if 6to4 addresses talk to each other, they connect over IPv4 directly, without need for relay servers. Also, sometimes the relay servers can be topologically far away on the IPv4 internet, slowing down IPv6 communication. And while IPv6 is cool, since your traffic is going over IPv4 part of the way anyway (to the nearest 6to4 relay), it makes no sense to artificially switch to IPv6 for the rest of the trip if you can just use IPv4 all the way.
But, if you have no native IPv6 and want to prefer 6to4 to IPv4 communication – since IPv6 is cool – you can tweak your
#label ::/0 1 #label 2002::/16 2
Just uncomment the 2002::/16 line and change its label from 2 to 1. Then it will have the same label as the “normal” IPv6 internet. Its behavior will be suboptimal in some cases and you shouldn’t deploy this thoughtlessly, but if you just do this on your personal workstation, it is a way to get the warm “I’m using IPv6 – somewhat” feeling.