Posts Tagged ‘debian’

SMTP from Exim-equipped roaming notebook (SSH smarthost)

February 13th, 2014 No comments

I don’t send email from my notebook often, dealing with my correspondence on my server machine via ssh. When I need to do it, it’s usually when I’m sending Git patches or something like that. I didn’t meet much trouble with sending it directly, but SMTP servers of Debian-involved people are some of the most picky one can meet and I decided it’ll be best if I switch the exim4 on my notebook to smarthost mode where all mail is relayed via my main server.

So that should be trivial to do, right? Wrong, apparently. I figured I’d use SMTP auth, but it just seems mind-bogglingly complicated to configure if you don’t want to spend an evening on it. The client part is fairly easy (probably both on exim4 and postfix), but setting up postfix server to do SMTP auth (for just a single person) is really silly stuff. Maybe not so crazy if you use PAM / shadow for authentication, but that means that on my notebook, I’d have to store (in plaintext) my server password anyone could use to log in – no way. It seems I could switch to Dovecot and somehow pass it a simple password to use, but at that point my patience ran out and I just backed off a litle.

Why not just use ssh for smarthost SMTP transport? Authentication via ssh is something everyone understands nowadays, it does the best job there, no silly passwords involved and you can just pipe SMTP through it. You wouldn’t do that at in a company setting with Windows notebooks, but for a single geek, it seems ideal.

Someone already did set up ssh as exim transport, but that’s for exim3. So here follows a super-quick HOWTO to do this with exim4:

  • Set up ssh key on client:
    sudo -u Debian-exim /bin/bash
    ssh-keygen # go with the default, and empty password, this will be used in an automated way
    ssh # to fill up known_hosts; it will fail yet
    cat ~/.ssh/ # this is my public key
    exit # ..the sudo
  • Set up ssh key on server – paste the public key printed by the cat above to ~me/.ssh/authorized_keys and prepend command="nc -w1 localhost smtp",no-agent-forwarding,no-port-forwarding,no-X11-forwarding to the key line. This key can now be used only for mail relaying.
  • Do dpkg-reconfigure exim4-config and configure smarthost mode. Also use it to find out whether you are using split or big configuration. You will also probably want to enable “mailname hiding”, otherwise your return-path will contain an unroutable address.
  • Set up ssh transport in exim4 – add the following to the config file:
      debug_print = "T: ssh_pipe for smarthost delivery"
      driver = pipe
      path = "/bin:/usr/bin:/usr/local/bin"
      command = "ssh nc -w1 localhost smtp"
      message_prefix = "HELO\r\n"

    (it would be nicer if we used the actual smarthost configuration option value and our notebook’s hostname instead of hardcoded strings, I guess).

  • In the smarthost: section of the configuration file, replace transport = remote_smtp_smarthost with transport = ssh_pipe.
  • /etc/init.d/exim4 reload and voilá, sending mail from anywhere should work now!

I *wish* setting up roaming SMTP nodes would be way easier nowadays and I wouldn’t have to eventually spend about 90 minutes on this stuff…

Categories: linux Tags: , , ,

systemd: journal listing on /dev/tty12

February 12th, 2014 5 comments

Inspired by the Debian CTTE deliberations on the new default init for Debian, I installed systemd on my notebook after tonight’s forced reboot and played with it a little.

(And I like it! I was very sceptical when hearing about systemd first, but after reading a lot of discussions and trying it myself, I find most of the problematic points either fixed already or a load of FUD. The immediate big selling point for me is actually journald, it and its integration with systemctl is really awesome. I’ll actually find systemd more useful on servers than desktops, I think.)

While it’s a nice exercise for anyone wanting to get familiar with systemd, I still decided to share a tidbit – service file that will make log entries show up on /dev/tty12. Many people run with rsyslogd set up for this, you’ll want to disable that (by default, all journal entries are forwarded to rsyslog). The advantage of showing journal entries instead is mainly color coding. :)

The file listing follows, or get it here.

# Simple systemd service that will show journal contents on /dev/tty12
# by running journalctl -af on it.
# Install by:
#  - Saving this as /etc/systemd/system/journal@tty12.service
#  - Running systemctl enable journal@tty12
#  - Running systemctl start journal@tty12
# journald can also log on console itself, but current Debian version won't
# show timestamps and color-coding.
# systemd is under LGPL2.1 etc, this is inspired by getty@.service.

Description=Journal tail on %I
After=systemd-user-sessions.service plymouth-quit-wait.service systemd-journald.service

# On systems without virtual consoles, don't start any getty. (Note
# that serial gettys are covered by serial-getty@.service, not this
# unit

# the VT is cleared by TTYVTDisallocate
ExecStart=/bin/sh -c "exec /bin/journalctl -af > /dev/%I 2> /dev/%I"

# Unset locale for the console getty since the console has problems
# displaying some internationalized messages.


(P.S.: Creating this service file – my very first one – took me 10 minutes total, including studying documentation and debugging two stupid mistakes I made.)

Edit (2019-10-19): New versions of journalctl check their stderr to decide whether to use colorize output – I have updated the recipe accordingly.

Categories: linux Tags: , ,

memtester and Virtual->Physical Address Translation

May 13th, 2010 5 comments