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## Playing MP3 on Raspberry Pi with low latency

May 11th, 2013 1 comment

One commercial project I was working on for Raspberry Pi involved playing various MP3 samples when a button is pushed. The original implementation used mplayer to play back the samples, however the issue is that there was up to 1500ms latency between mplayer was executed and start of playback.

I didn’t do detailed profiling, but I think two factors causing high latency of mplayer were that (i) just loading all the .so libraries mplayer depends on can take many hundreds of milliseconds (ii) the file is being scanned for whatever stuff, streams detected etc. and that can also take some extra time; perhaps I could force mplayer to realize this is a simple MP3 file, but (i) is still the much bigger factor.

I wanted to avoid recoding all the samples to wav. That would allow me to use aplay directly and the playback starts immediately, but it would also feel really silly; decoding of MP3 is not the bottleneck, just the latency of mammoth software loading and initializing itself is. I also didn’t try mpd as that might have been a bit painful to set up.

Another point worth noting is that I didn’t use the crappy on-board PWM audio but a $3 chinese USB soundcard (which is still much better than PWM audio). And using reasonably up-to-date Raspbian Wheezy. So I tried… • mplayer -slave -idle, started in parallel with my program and receiving commands via FIFO. It hangs after the first file (even though it works fine when ran without -slave). • cmus running in parallel with my program, controlled by cmus-remote. Convincing it to use ALSA device of my choice was really hard, but eventually I managed, only to hear my files sped up about 20x. • madplay I couldn’t convince about using a non-default ALSA device at all. • mpg123 started immediately and could play back the MP3 files on a non-default ALSA device. Somehow, the quality was very low though (telephone grade) and there was an intense high-pitched clip at the end of the playback. • mpg321 I couldn’t convince to produce any sound and anyway it had about 800ms latency before playback started, probably due to its libao dependency. • sox, or rather AUDIODEV=hw:1 play worked! (After installing a package with MP3 support for sox.) No latency, normal quality, no clips, no hangs. Whew. Verdict: There still is a software on Linux that can properly and quickly play MP3 files on Raspberry Pi, though it was a challenge to find it. I didn’t think of sox at first and I was almost giving up hope. BTW, normally you would use sox and play for applying a variety of audio transformations and effects in a batch/pipeline fashion and it can do a lot of awesome magic. Categories: Tags: ## Short minutes from “Text Mail Clients” BOF @ LinuxDays Prague 2012 October 21st, 2012 No comments I promised to post some minutes from the BOF in$SUBJ here for people who don’t remember all the tool names:

• [l]imit in mutt is very powerful functionality; my other blogpost describes notmuch integration to that
• new mutt-kz has good virtual folder support as notmuch integration; perhaps future of state-of-art text mail clients
• sup is interesting gmail-like text client, but way too slow!
• alot is worth a look as nice notmuch frontend; no screenshots on net though
• notmuch can filter by folder label, so single db is fine for all your folders
• dovecot sync (dsync)
• lookg at images when reading mail remotely – screenenv (set $DISPLAY based on last active screen client), new tool needed for seamless transfer of files back to local machine is needed! • maildir sync using VCS (bazaar) instead of imap (read mails using “thick client”) (ccxcz) • prioritization of downloaded mails by using uucp for transfer (lmw) • sending mails by feeding them to procmail which decides how to send them (ccxcz) • automatic addressbook building: lbdb (little brother db) • Trojita is Qt MUA with very fast IMAP. • another mutt tip: set edit_headers will make mutt not ask about recipient, subject etc. before starting editor, but let you put the headers in instead Categories: linux Tags: ## Conversion from mixed UTF8 / legacy encoding data to UTF8 September 23rd, 2012 No comments For about 13 years now, I’m running the Muaddib IRC bot that serves a range of Czech channels. Its features varied historically, but the main one is providing conversational AI services (it learns from people talking to him and replies back based on the learnt stuff). It runs the Megahal Markov chain algorithm, using the Hailo implementation right now. Sometimes, I need to reset its brain. Most commonly when the server happens to hit a disk full situation, something no Megahal implementation seems to be able to deal with gracefully. :-) (Hailo is SQLite-based.) Thankfully, it’s a simple sed job with all the IRC logs archived. However, Muaddib always had trouble with non-ASCII data, mixing a variety of encodings and liking to produce a gibberish result. So, historically, people used to talk to Muaddib using ISO-8859-2 and UTF8 encodings and now I had mixed ISO-8859-2/UTF8 lines and I wanted to convert them all to UTF8. Curiously, I have not been able to quickly Google out a solution and had to hack together my own (and, well, dealing with Unicod ein Perl is never something that goes quickly). For the benefit of fellow Google wanderers, here is my take: perl -MEncode -ple 'BEGIN { binmode STDOUT, ":utf8"; }$_ = decode("UTF-8", $_, sub { decode("iso-8859-2", chr(shift)) });'  It relies on the Encode::decode() ability to specify a custom conversion failure handler (and the fact that Latin2 character sequences that are also valid UTF-8 sequences are fairly rare). Note that Encode 2.35 (found in Debian squeeze) is broken and while it documents this feature, it doesn’t work. Encode 2.42_01 in Debian wheezy or latest CPAN version (use perl -MCPAN -e 'install Encode' to upgrade) works fine. Categories: Tags: ## Perl and UTF8 June 24th, 2012 1 comment I love Perl and it’s my language of choice for much of the software I write (between shell at one extreme and C at the other). However, there is one thing Perl really sucks at – Unicode and UTF8 encoding support. It is not that the features aren’t there, but that getting it to work is so tricky. It is so much tricks to remember already that I started writing them down: http://brmlab.cz/user/pasky/perl-utf8 It’s a wiki, anyone is welcome to contribute. :-) Categories: Tags: ## Texas Instrument Launchpad MSP430 and Linux June 11th, 2012 2 comments I found out that the situation with MSP430 is not as bad as it seemed. This post is mostly obsolete, but I’m leaving the text up for the benefit of Google index and other desperate people struggling with their Launchpad. :-) This blogpost serves as a big fat warning to the future ones that might be about to follow in my footsteps: Currently sold TI Launchpad MSP430 is not properly supported by Linux as of 2012-06-01 It’s a sad reality but that’s just how it is, to the best of my knowledge, and after a lot of research and doing unbelievable things to kernel drivers etc. To clarify a bit, basic programming using mspdebug works, but you cannot communicate between host and board using USB serial. This seems to have worked with much older USB chips but not with the ones used by TI in current versions of the board (I got Launchpad with MSP-EXP430G2 ordered in May 2012). Some fun technical details to help google index and guide others diagnosing this: [186808.775510] usb 1-1.2: new full-speed USB device number 7 using ehci_hcd [186808.891778] usb 1-1.2: New USB device found, idVendor=0451, idProduct=f432 [186808.891788] usb 1-1.2: New USB device strings: Mfr=1, Product=2, SerialNumber=3 [186808.891794] usb 1-1.2: Product: Texas Instruments MSP-FET430UIF [186808.891800] usb 1-1.2: Manufacturer: Texas Instruments [186808.891804] usb 1-1.2: SerialNumber: CFFF4695F6C11445 [186808.924900] cdc_acm 1-1.2:1.0: This device cannot do calls on its own. It is not a modem. [186808.924914] cdc_acm 1-1.2:1.0: No union descriptor, testing for castrated device [186808.925029] cdc_acm 1-1.2:1.0: ttyACM0: USB ACM device [186808.927595] usbcore: registered new interface driver cdc_acm [186808.927603] cdc_acm: USB Abstract Control Model driver for USB modems and ISDN adapters [186818.963279] generic-usb 0003:0451:F432.0001: usb_submit_urb(ctrl) failed [186818.963332] generic-usb 0003:0451:F432.0001: timeout initializing reports [186818.964177] generic-usb 0003:0451:F432.0001: hiddev0,hidraw0: USB HID v1.01 Device [Texas Instruments Texas Instruments MSP-FET430UIF] on usb-0000 :00:1a.0-1.2/input1 [186818.964262] usbcore: registered new interface driver usbhid [186818.964269] usbhid: USB HID core driver  This is what my dmesg says the first time the board is plugged in. mspdebug works fine but any attempt of serial communication over /dev/ttyACM0 (talking to TI-provided sample UART code). OBTW if you are actually wondering how to compile and upload stuff on this baby: msp430-gcc -mmcu=msp430g2553 -Wall -O3 -o uart_01_9600 msp430g2xx3_uscia0_uart_01_9600.c mspdebug rf2500 prog\ uart_01_9600  For USB interface, TI includes its own crazy USB-enabled microcontroller on board that provides a HID-ish interface (for mspdebug) and an ACM-ish interface (for UART emulation) on a single port (which is nicely confusing). The serial part is supposed to be handled by ti_usb_3410_5052 kernel driver, which grabs a firmware and attempts to reflash the USB microcontroller so that it presents a more sensible serial USB interface (pretty crazy, eh?). However, the rf2500 variant of this chip appears to be too new and simply not supported either by the firmware or the firmware uploader. Tweaking USB ids in the driver (f430 -> f432) does not help. Getting ti_3410.fw that Debian helpfully does not ship does not help. Manually binding the driver to USB does not help. The furthest I get is that the driver indeed tries to flash the ti_3410.fw firmware to device, but just times out doing that (I think maybe I bricked the serial part of the USB microcontroller by now): [193053.430662] ti_usb_3410_5052 1-1.2:1.0: TI USB 3410 1 port adapter converter detected [193054.443490] usb 1-1.2: ti_download_firmware - error downloading firmware, -110 [193054.443528] ti_usb_3410_5052: probe of 1-1.2:1.0 failed with error -5  Oh, and mspdebug rf2400 exit before any serial communication (I have found a tip somewhere) does not help either. An obviously-working UART code for MSP430G2553 would be welcome too, to triple-rule-out a uC-side firmware problem. (The launchpad board is awesome but rx/tx leds are sorely missing. I know, I could grab an oscilloscope… but how many hours have I already wasted by this?) So, what seemed to be a great Arduino replacement turns to dust for me since the whole point of 80% of my Arduino projects is to talk to a computer… That said, if (after) you make it work, you will get one, or maybe even two Launchpads for free from me. Categories: Tags: ## Using CUPS to print text files in non-UTF8 charset encoding May 17th, 2012 No comments At our university department, many people still haven’t migrated to UTF8 and are still happily using ISO-8859-2 – mainly due to the amount of legacy text (TeX, …) documents. Nowadays, support for non-UTF8 is slowly waning though, and CUPS is a prime example. Most of (shabby anyway) support for non-UTF8 encodings have been removed few years ago. It is still possible to force CUPS to print text files in non-UTF8 encoding if you extract the appropriate files from ancient version (1.2 or some-such) of CUPS to /usr/share/cups/charset/ and print using e.g. lpr -o document-format='text/plain;charset=iso-8859-2'. However, there is simply no support for lpr automatically setting the charset based on your locale. We decided that the best way to go is to simply auto-detect the encoding using the awesome enca package and convert text files from this encoding to UTF8. This should be actually fairly fool-proof in practice, unless you are dealing with an extremely mixed set of languages. Making own CUPS filter is easy – just change texttops entries in /etc/cups/mime.conv to textautoencps and create a new /usr/lib/cups/filter/textautoencps file: #!/bin/bash if [$# == 0 ]; then echo >&2 "ERROR: $0 job-id user title copies options [file]" exit 1 fi { if [$# -ge 6 ]; then cat $6 else cat fi; } | enconv -x utf-8 -L czech | /usr/lib/cups/filter/texttops "${@:0:6}"
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## Publicly Killable Computations

At our university department, people sometimes need to run expensive or long-term computations. We have few servers reserved for computations, but frequently it is useful to run computations on machines in the offices since some of them are fairly powerful and mostly get only very light use CPU-wise.

However, such computations must never impair any interactive or more pressing use of the machine. Therefore, we want to limit scheduling priority of the computations, limit total memory used by the computations and allow *anyone* kill *any* running computation. It turns out that this is not as trivial to achieve as I hoped.

In comes Computations under control: compctl – cgroup-based control of publicly limitable and stopable tasks. It is a tool that allows anyone to execute a command (or start screen) such that it is marked as a computation. Then, it allows anyone else to limit the total amount of memory allocated for all computations and to stop a specific computation or all computations on a machine. It uses cgroups to keep track of computations and limit the total memory usage, and a simple client-server architecture to perform priviledged tasks.

I hope it will be useful for someone else too. :-) Feel free to send in patches, and extra pairs of eyeballs checking the security would be welcome too. Top on my TODO list is simple debian package and a more verbose compctl –list output.

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## I use 6to4 – why are my applications still preferring IPv4?

July 4th, 2011 1 comment

I found out about this curious behavior almost a month ago during the World IPv6 Day. I was surprised about this, even though I really shouldn’t be, given that I was fixing some bugs in the glibc implementation of this mechanism only few months earlier. ;-)

If you are not bothering with tunnel brokers anymore and are using 6to4 for your IPv6 connectivity like me, you might have noticed that your applications still prefer IPv4, disappontingly. You can use getent ahosts www.brmlab.cz (or a different host) to see the list of addresses in the order your applications will most likely try to connect by default.

The key mechanism in play here is the RFC3484 getaddrinfo(3) address selection mechanism; on GNU/Linux system, it is described (and configurable) in /etc/gai.conf. The aim of the mechanism is to choose the most suitable pair of source and destination addresses; this is the place where we can choose whether to prefer IPv4 or IPv6, that if we can talk to localhost, we should do it that way, or to talk to link-local addresses using link-local addresses too.

When choosing a destination address, each is marked by a label and preference. First, if there is a destination address with the same label as its “best” source address, such addresses are preferred. From these candidates, the address with the highest preference is picked.

You can read up on the full details in the RFC. In a sense, the label differentiates between multiple transports; IPv4, normal IPv6 (2001::/16, or rather ::/0 minus a lot of exceptions), 6to4, link-local and localhost are all such separate transports. This mechanism for example makes sure that IPv4 is preferred to normal IPv6 in case we have IPv4 address, but only link-local IPv6 available. And the important point is that 6to4 is differentiated. If a system has both normal IPv6 and 6to4 configured, normal IPv6 is used for normal IPv6 destinations while 6to4 is used for 6to4 destinations. The side effect is that if IPv4 and 6to4 addresses are available, IPv4 will be preferred to IPv6 destinations.

I’m not sure about the exact motivation for this, but it does make sense. It reduces the load on the relay servers that route between 6to4 realm and native IPv6 internet; if 6to4 addresses talk to each other, they connect over IPv4 directly, without need for relay servers. Also, sometimes the relay servers can be topologically far away on the IPv4 internet, slowing down IPv6 communication. And while IPv6 is cool, since your traffic is going over IPv4 part of the way anyway (to the nearest 6to4 relay), it makes no sense to artificially switch to IPv6 for the rest of the trip if you can just use IPv4 all the way.

But, if you have no native IPv6 and want to prefer 6to4 to IPv4 communication – since IPv6 is cool – you can tweak your /etc/gai.conf:

#label ::/0          1
#label 2002::/16     2


Just uncomment the 2002::/16 line and change its label from 2 to 1. Then it will have the same label as the “normal” IPv6 internet. Its behavior will be suboptimal in some cases and you shouldn’t deploy this thoughtlessly, but if you just do this on your personal workstation, it is a way to get the warm “I’m using IPv6 – somewhat” feeling.

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## Multiple Kerberos realms on single host

We are using Kerberos for central authentication at our university department; recently, we have set up a second realm for authentication to other services than UNIX logins (e.g. webmail) – we did not like the idea of reusing the same passwords.

Setting up a second realm has been pretty straightforward, just add the other realm to /etc/krb5.conf, write explicit port number to admin_server and kadmin_port options, add another init script for secondary admin server and… it almost works.

But suddenly, users find themselves unable to change their password within the original realm using passwd or kpasswd, with less than helpful Authentication error: Failed reading application request. And that’s the reason I’m writing up this, since you explicitly need to set the totally undocumented option kpasswd_port to a different value than 464! This is because kadmind provides the kadmin service on TCP port (749 by default), but also chpw service on UDP port (464 by default).

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## Repairing git cherry-pick authorship information

I spent just my last night going through few months worth of patches and cherry-picking the bugfixy ones to glibc’s release/2.11/master. But I was tired and didn’t pay attention to git’s messages, so at the end of the evening, I noticed that for all conflicting patches, I have done git commit -a instead of git commit -a -c commitid. This had a definite advantage since the “(cherry picked from commit …)” notices inserted by git cherry-pick -x got preserved, but also a very definitive problem – the author name and date info for each commit was wrong.

(Note that AIUI, 1.7.5 cherry-pick might not have this problem anymore. I’m still using 1.7.4, content with Debian’s packaged version nowadays.)

Due to the -x lines, we still have mapping to original history. Therefore, some scripting should fix this quickly. And sure enough…! Maybe this recipe will come useful to someone:

git filter-branch --commit-filter ' if [ "$GIT_AUTHOR_NAME" = "Petr Baudis" ]; then # Author of this commit is wrong! We could also simply correct # all commits containing the "cherry picked" notice. cat >/tmp/logm$$# save log message ocommit="(sed -n '\''s/^(cherry picked from commit $$.*$$)/\1/p'\'' </tmp/logm$$)" # Load original authorship information: IFS=: read GIT_AUTHOR_NAME GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL GIT_AUTHOR_DATE \ <<<"$(git log -1 --pretty=format:"%an:%ae:%at" $ocommit)" # Redo the commit: export GIT_AUTHOR_NAME GIT_AUTHOR_EMAIL GIT_AUTHOR_DATE git commit-tree "$@" </tmp/logm$$rm /tmp/logm$$ else git commit-tree "\$@" # preserve commit intact fi' c55cc45ed76603b380489ee8c91ab5dce92e92f1..HEAD

Note that this requires that /bin/sh is bash (which may NOT be the case on debian!). Otherwise, you need to rewrite the <<< bit.

The c55cc45ed… commit is the first wrong cherry-pick. You may omit that altogether if you wish but the complete branch history is going to be rewritten. Also note that you should never rewrite commits that are already pushed out to a public place.

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